Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Yellow Wallpaper An Essay by Charlotte Perkins Gilman

The following is the complete text of the short story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, originally published in May 1892, in  The New England Magazine. Included are some questions for analyzing the story. Questions for Thinking About The Short Story Included Below Why is this usually considered a feminist story?  (What Is Feminism?)What rights did the main character have or not have? What choices were available to her? (What Are Womens Rights?)How does this treatment of womens rights compare to Mary Wollstonecrafts writings about womens rights?  (Mary Wollstonecraft - What Rights?)  How do each of them treat their experience in relationship to the purpose of their writings? (Mary Wollstonecraft: Grounded in Experience)What was the likelihood at the time that the main character would find a physician who was a woman, and shared womens experience?What do we know about Charlotte Perkins life and her words on related issues? (Charlotte Perkins Gilman Quotes | Biography of Charlotte Perkins Gilman)Why do you think she wrote the story?  How does this compare to her own published reasons? (Why I Wrote the Yellow Wallpaper)Could she have made her points better by writing a nonfiction essay? The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman It is very seldom that mere ordinary people like John and myself secure ancestral halls for the summer. A colonial mansion, a hereditary estate, I would say a haunted house, and reach the height of romantic felicity--but that would be asking too much of fate! Still I will proudly declare that there is something queer about it. Else, why should it be let so cheaply? And why have stood so long untenanted? John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage. John is practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures. John is a physician, and PERHAPS--(I would not say it to a living soul, of course, but this is dead paper and a great relief to my mind)--PERHAPS that is one reason I do not get well faster. You see he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do? If a physician of high standing, and ones own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression--a slight hysterical tendency--what is one to do? My brother is also a physician, and also of high standing, and he says the same thing. So I take phosphates or phosphites--whichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to work until I am well again. Personally, I disagree with their ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good. But what is one to do? I did write for a while in spite of them; but it DOES exhaust me a good deal--having to be so sly about it, or else meet with heavy opposition. I sometimes fancy that my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus--but John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. So I will let it alone and talk about the house. The most beautiful place! It is quite alone, standing well back from the road, quite three miles from the village. It makes me think of English places that you read about, for there are hedges and walls and gates that lock, and lots of separate little houses for the gardeners and people. There is a DELICIOUS garden! I never saw such a garden--large and shady, full of box-bordered paths, and lined with long grape-covered arbors with seats under them. There were greenhouses, too, but they are all broken now. There was some legal trouble, I believe, something about the heirs and coheirs; anyhow, the place has been empty for years. That spoils my ghostliness, I am afraid, but I dont care--there is something strange about the house--I can feel it. I even said so to John one moonlight evening, but he said what I felt was a DRAUGHT, and shut the window. I get unreasonably angry with John sometimes. Im sure I never used to be so sensitive. I think it is due to this nervous condition. But John says if I feel so, I shall neglect proper self-control; so I take pains to control myself--before him, at least, and that makes me very tired. I dont like our room a bit. I wanted one downstairs that opened on the piazza and had roses all over the window, and such pretty old-fashioned chintz hangings! but John would not hear of it. He said there was only one window and not room for two beds, and no near room for him if he took another. He is very careful and loving, and hardly lets me stir without special direction. I have a schedule prescription for each hour in the day; he takes all care from me, and so I feel basely ungrateful not to value it more. He said we came here solely on my account, that I was to have perfect rest and all the air I could get. Your exercise depends on your strength, my dear, said he, and your food somewhat on your appetite; but air you can absorb all the time. So we took the nursery at the top of the house. It is a big, airy room, the whole floor nearly, with windows that look all ways, and air and sunshine galore. It was nursery first and then playroom and gymnasium, I should judge; for the windows are barred for little children, and there are rings and things in the walls. The paint and paper look as if a boys school had used it. It is stripped off--the paper--in great patches all around the head of my bed, about as far as I can reach, and in a great place on the other side of the room low down. I never saw a worse paper in my life. One of those sprawling flamboyant patterns committing every artistic sin. It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly irritate and provoke study, and when you follow the lame uncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly commit suicide--plunge off at outrageous angles, destroy themselves in unheard of contradictions. The color is repellent, almost revolting; a smouldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight. It is a dull yet lurid orange in some places, a sickly sulphur tint in others. No wonder the children hated it! I should hate it myself if I had to live in this room long. There comes John, and I must put this away,--he hates to have me write a word. We have been here two weeks, and I havent felt like writing before, since that first day. I am sitting by the window now, up in this atrocious nursery, and there is nothing to hinder my writing as much as I please, save lack of strength. John is away all day, and even some nights when his cases are serious. I am glad my case is not serious! But these nervous troubles are dreadfully depressing. John does not know how much I really suffer. He knows there is no REASON to suffer, and that satisfies him. Of course it is only nervousness. It does weigh on me so not to do my duty in any way! I meant to be such a help to John, such a real rest and comfort, and here I am a comparative burden already! Nobody would believe what an effort it is to do what little I am able,--to dress and entertain, and other things. It is fortunate Mary is so good with the baby. Such a dear baby! And yet I CANNOT be with him, it makes me so nervous. I suppose John never was nervous in his life. He laughs at me so about this wall-paper! At first he meant to repaper the room, but afterwards he said that I was letting it get the better of me, and that nothing was worse for a nervous patient than to give way to such fancies. He said that after the wall-paper was changed it would be the heavy bedstead, and then the barred windows, and then that gate at the head of the stairs, and so on. You know the place is doing you good, he said, and really, dear, I dont care to renovate the house just for a three months rental. Then do let us go downstairs, I said, there are such pretty rooms there. Then he took me in his arms and called me a blessed little goose, and said he would go down to the cellar, if I wished, and have it whitewashed into the bargain. But he is right enough about the beds and windows and things. It is an airy and comfortable room as any one need wish, and, of course, I would not be so silly as to make him uncomfortable just for a whim. Im really getting quite fond of the big room, all but that horrid paper. Out of one window I can see the garden, those mysterious deepshaded arbors, the riotous old-fashioned flowers, and bushes and gnarly trees. Out of another I get a lovely view of the bay and a little private wharf belonging to the estate. There is a beautiful shaded lane that runs down there from the house. I always fancy I see people walking in these numerous paths and arbors, but John has cautioned me not to give way to fancy in the least. He says that with my imaginative power and habit of story-making, a nervous weakness like mine is sure to lead to all manner of excited fancies, and that I ought to use my will and good sense to check the tendency. So I try. I think sometimes that if I were only well enough to write a little it would relieve the press of ideas and rest me. But I find I get pretty tired when I try. It is so discouraging not to have any advice and companionship about my work. When I get really well, John says we will ask Cousin Henry and Julia down for a long visit; but he says he would as soon put fireworks in my pillow-case as to let me have those stimulating people about now. I wish I could get well faster. But I must not think about that. This paper looks to me as if it KNEW what a vicious influence it had! There is a recurrent spot where the pattern lolls like a broken neck and two bulbous eyes stare at you upside down. I get positively angry with the impertinence of it and the everlastingness. Up and down and sideways they crawl, and those absurd, unblinking eyes are everywhere. There is one place where two breadths didnt match, and the eyes go all up and down the line, one a little higher than the other. I never saw so much expression in an inanimate thing before, and we all know how much expression they have! I used to lie awake as a child and get more entertainment and terror out of blank walls and plain furniture than most children could find in a toy store. I remember what a kindly wink the knobs of our big, old bureau used to have, and there was one chair that always seemed like a strong friend. I used to feel that if any of the other things looked too fierce I could always hop into that chair and be safe. The furniture in this room is no worse than inharmonious, however, for we had to bring it all from downstairs. I suppose when this was used as a playroom they had to take the nursery things out, and no wonder! I never saw such ravages as the children have made here. The wall-paper, as I said before, is torn off in spots, and it sticketh closer than a brother--they must have had perseverance as well as hatred. Then the floor is scratched and gouged and splintered, the plaster itself is dug out here and there, and this great heavy bed which is all we found in the room, looks as if it had been through the wars. But I dont mind it a bit--only the paper. There comes Johns sister. Such a dear girl as she is, and so careful of me! I must not let her find me writing. She is a perfect and enthusiastic housekeeper, and hopes for no better profession. I verily believe she thinks it is the writing which made me sick! But I can write when she is out, and see her a long way off from these windows. There is one that commands the road, a lovely shaded winding road, and one that just looks off over the country. A lovely country, too, full of great elms and velvet meadows. This wall-paper has a kind of sub-pattern in a different shade, a particularly irritating one, for you can only see it in certain lights, and not clearly then. But in the places where it isnt faded and where the sun is just so--I can see a strange, provoking, formless sort of figure, that seems to skulk about behind that silly and conspicuous front design. Theres sister on the stairs! Well, the Fourth of July is over! The people are gone and I am tired out. John thought it might do me good to see a little company, so we just had mother and Nellie and the children down for a week. Of course I didnt do a thing. Jennie sees to everything now. But it tired me all the same. John says if I dont pick up faster he shall send me to Weir Mitchell in the fall. But I dont want to go there at all. I had a friend who was in his hands once, and she says he is just like John and my brother, only more so! Besides, it is such an undertaking to go so far. I dont feel as if it was worth while to turn my hand over for anything, and Im getting dreadfully fretful and querulous. I cry at nothing, and cry most of the time. Of course I dont when John is here, or anybody else, but when I am alone. And I am alone a good deal just now. John is kept in town very often by serious cases, and Jennie is good and lets me alone when I want her to. So I walk a little in the garden or down that lovely lane, sit on the porch under the roses, and lie down up here a good deal. Im getting really fond of the room in spite of the wall-paper. Perhaps BECAUSE of the wall-paper. It dwells in my mind so! I lie here on this great immovable bed--it is nailed down, I believe--and follow that pattern about by the hour. It is as good as gymnastics, I assure you. I start, well say, at the bottom, down in the corner over there where it has not been touched, and I determine for the thousandth time that I WILL follow that pointless pattern to some sort of a conclusion. I know a little of the principle of design, and I know this thing was not arranged on any laws of radiation, or alternation, or repetition, or symmetry, or anything else that I ever heard of. It is repeated, of course, by the breadths, but not otherwise. Looked at in one way each breadth stands alone, the bloated curves and flourishes--a kind of debased Romanesque with delirium tremens--go waddling up and down in isolated columns of fatuity. But, on the other hand, they connect diagonally, and the sprawling outlines run off in great slanting waves of optic horror, like a lot of wallowing seaweeds in full chase. The whole thing goes horizontally, too, at least it seems so, and I exhaust myself in trying to distinguish the order of its going in that direction. They have used a horizontal breadth for a frieze, and that adds wonderfully to the confusion. There is one end of the room where it is almost intact, and there, when the crosslights fade and the low sun shines directly upon it, I can almost fancy radiation after all,--the interminable grotesques seem to form around a common centre and rush off in headlong plunges of equal distraction. It makes me tired to follow it. I will take a nap I guess. I dont know why I should write this. I dont want to. I dont feel able. And I know John would think it absurd. But I MUST say what I feel and think in some way--it is such a relief! But the effort is getting to be greater than the relief. Half the time now I am awfully lazy, and lie down ever so much. John says I musnt lose my strength, and has me take cod liver oil and lots of tonics and things, to say nothing of ale and wine and rare meat. Dear John! He loves me very dearly, and hates to have me sick. I tried to have a real earnest reasonable talk with him the other day, and tell him how I wish he would let me go and make a visit to Cousin Henry and Julia. But he said I wasnt able to go, nor able to stand it after I got there; and I did not make out a very good case for myself, for I was crying before I had finished. It is getting to be a great effort for me to think straight. Just this nervous weakness I suppose. And dear John gathered me up in his arms, and just carried me upstairs and laid me on the bed, and sat by me and read to me till it tired my head. He said I was his darling and his comfort and all he had, and that I must take care of myself for his sake, and keep well. He says no one but myself can help me out of it, that I must use my will and self-control and not let any silly fancies run away with me. Theres one comfort, the baby is well and happy, and does not have to occupy this nursery with the horrid wall-paper. If we had not used it, that blessed child would have! What a fortunate escape! Why, I wouldnt have a child of mine, an impressionable little thing, live in such a room for worlds. I never thought of it before, but it is lucky that John kept me here after all, I can stand it so much easier than a baby, you see. Of course I never mention it to them any more--I am too wise,--but I keep watch of it all the same. There are things in that paper that nobody knows but me, or ever will. Behind that outside pattern the dim shapes get clearer every day. It is always the same shape, only very numerous. And it is like a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern. I dont like it a bit. I wonder--I begin to think--I wish John would take me away from here! It is so hard to talk with John about my case, because he is so wise, and because he loves me so. But I tried it last night. It was moonlight. The moon shines in all around just as the sun does. I hate to see it sometimes, it creeps so slowly, and always comes in by one window or another. John was asleep and I hated to waken him, so I kept still and watched the moonlight on that undulating wall-paper till I felt creepy. The faint figure behind seemed to shake the pattern, just as if she wanted to get out. I got up softly and went to feel and see if the paper DID move, and when I came back John was awake. What is it, little girl? he said. Dont go walking about like that--youll get cold. I though it was a good time to talk, so I told him that I really was not gaining here, and that I wished he would take me away. Why darling! said he, our lease will be up in three weeks, and I cant see how to leave before. The repairs are not done at home, and I cannot possibly leave town just now. Of course if you were in any danger, I could and would, but you really are better, dear, whether you can see it or not. I am a doctor, dear, and I know. You are gaining flesh and color, your appetite is better, I feel really much easier about you. I dont weigh a bit more, said I, nor as much; and my appetite may be better in the evening when you are here, but it is worse in the morning when you are away! Bless her little heart! said he with a big hug, she shall be as sick as she pleases! But now lets improve the shining hours by going to sleep, and talk about it in the morning! And you wont go away? I asked gloomily. Why, how can I, dear? It is only three weeks more and then we will take a nice little trip of a few days while Jennie is getting the house ready. Really dear you are better! Better in body perhaps-- I began, and stopped short, for he sat up straight and looked at me with such a stern, reproachful look that I could not say another word. My darling, said he, I beg of you, for my sake and for our childs sake, as well as for your own, that you will never for one instant let that idea enter your mind! There is nothing so dangerous, so fascinating, to a temperament like yours. It is a false and foolish fancy. Can you not trust me as a physician when I tell you so? So of course I said no more on that score, and we went to sleep before long. He thought I was asleep first, but I wasnt, and lay there for hours trying to decide whether that front pattern and the back pattern really did move together or separately. On a pattern like this, by daylight, there is a lack of sequence, a defiance of law, that is a constant irritant to a normal mind. The color is hideous enough, and unreliable enough, and infuriating enough, but the pattern is torturing. You think you have mastered it, but just as you get well underway in following, it turns a back-somersault and there you are. It slaps you in the face, knocks you down, and tramples upon you. It is like a bad dream. The outside pattern is a florid arabesque, reminding one of a fungus. If you can imagine a toadstool in joints, an interminable string of toadstools, budding and sprouting in endless convolutions--why, that is something like it. That is, sometimes! There is one marked peculiarity about this paper, a thing nobody seems to notice but myself,and that is that it changes as the light changes. When the sun shoots in through the east window--I always watch for that first long, straight ray--it changes so quickly that I never can quite believe it. That is why I watch it always. By moonlight--the moon shines in all night when there is a moon--I wouldnt know it was the same paper. At night in any kind of light, in twilight, candle light, lamplight, and worst of all by moonlight, it becomes bars! The outside pattern I mean, and the woman behind it is as plain as can be. I didnt realize for a long time what the thing was that showed behind, that dim sub-pattern, but now I am quite sure it is a woman. By daylight she is subdued, quiet. I fancy it is the pattern that keeps her so still. It is so puzzling. It keeps me quiet by the hour. I lie down ever so much now. John says it is good for me, and to sleep all I can. Indeed he started the habit by making me lie down for an hour after each meal. It is a very bad habit I am convinced, for you see I dont sleep. And that cultivates deceit, for I dont tell them Im awake--O no! The fact is I am getting a little afraid of John. He seems very queer sometimes, and even Jennie has an inexplicable look. It strikes me occasionally, just as a scientific hypothesis,--that perhaps it is the paper! I have watched John when he did not know I was looking, and come into the room suddenly on the most innocent excuses, and Ive caught him several times LOOKING AT THE PAPER! And Jennie too. I caught Jennie with her hand on it once. She didnt know I was in the room, and when I asked her in a quiet, a very quiet voice, with the most restrained manner possible, what she was doing with the paper--she turned around as if she had been caught stealing, and looked quite angry--asked me why I should frighten her so! Then she said that the paper stained everything it touched, that she had found yellow smooches on all my clothes and Johns, and she wished we would be more careful! Did not that sound innocent? But I know she was studying that pattern, and I am determined that nobody shall find it out but myself! Life is very much more exciting now than it used to be. You see I have something more to expect, to look forward to, to watch. I really do eat better, and am more quiet than I was. John is so pleased to see me improve! He laughed a little the other day, and said I seemed to be flourishing in spite of my wall-paper. I turned it off with a laugh. I had no intention of telling him it was BECAUSE of the wall-paper--he would make fun of me. He might even want to take me away. I dont want to leave now until I have found it out. There is a week more, and I think that will be enough. Im feeling ever so much better! I dont sleep much at night, for it is so interesting to watch developments; but I sleep a good deal in the daytime. In the daytime it is tiresome and perplexing. There are always new shoots on the fungus, and new shades of yellow all over it. I cannot keep count of them, though I have tried conscientiously. It is the strangest yellow, that wall-paper! It makes me think of all the yellow things I ever saw--not beautiful ones like buttercups, but old foul, bad yellow things. But there is something else about that paper--the smell! I noticed it the moment we came into the room, but with so much air and sun it was not bad. Now we have had a week of fog and rain, and whether the windows are open or not, the smell is here. It creeps all over the house. I find it hovering in the dining-room, skulking in the parlor, hiding in the hall, lying in wait for me on the stairs. It gets into my hair. Even when I go to ride, if I turn my head suddenly and surprise it--there is that smell! Such a peculiar odor, too! I have spent hours in trying to analyze it, to find what it smelled like. It is not bad--at first, and very gentle, but quite the subtlest, most enduring odor I ever met. In this damp weather it is awful, I wake up in the night and find it hanging over me. It used to disturb me at first. I thought seriously of burning the house--to reach the smell. But now I am used to it. The only thing I can think of that it is like is the COLOR of the paper! A yellow smell. There is a very funny mark on this wall, low down, near the mopboard. A streak that runs round the room. It goes behind every piece of furniture, except the bed, a long, straight, even SMOOCH, as if it had been rubbed over and over. I wonder how it was done and who did it, and what they did it for. Round and round and round--round and round and round--it makes me dizzy! I really have discovered something at last. Through watching so much at night, when it changes so, I have finally found out. The front pattern DOES move--and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast, and her crawling shakes it all over. Then in the very bright spots she keeps still, and in the very shady spots she just takes hold of the bars and shakes them hard. And she is all the time trying to climb through. But nobody could climb through that pattern--it strangles so; I think that is why it has so many heads. They get through, and then the pattern strangles them off and turns them upside down, and makes their eyes white! If those heads were covered or taken off it would not be half so bad. I think that woman gets out in the daytime! And Ill tell you why--privately--Ive seen her! I can see her out of every one of my windows! It is the same woman, I know, for she is always creeping, and most women do not creep by daylight. I see her on that long road under the trees, creeping along, and when a carriage comes she hides under the blackberry vines. I dont blame her a bit. It must be very humiliating to be caught creeping by daylight! I always lock the door when I creep by daylight. I cant do it at night, for I know John would suspect something at once. And John is so queer now, that I dont want to irritate him. I wish he would take another room! Besides, I dont want anybody to get that woman out at night but myself. I often wonder if I could see her out of all the windows at once. But, turn as fast as I can, I can only see out of one at a time. And though I always see her, she MAY be able to creep faster than I can turn! I have watched her sometimes away off in the open country, creeping as fast as a cloud shadow in a high wind. If only that top pattern could be gotten off from the under one! I mean to try it, little by little. I have found out another funny thing, but I shant tell it this time! It does not do to trust people too much. There are only two more days to get this paper off, and I believe John is beginning to notice. I dont like the look in his eyes. And I heard him ask Jennie a lot of professional questions about me. She had a very good report to give. She said I slept a good deal in the daytime. John knows I dont sleep very well at night, for all Im so quiet! He asked me all sorts of questions, too, and pretended to be very loving and kind. As if I couldnt see through him! Still, I dont wonder he acts so, sleeping under this paper for three months. It only interests me, but I feel sure John and Jennie are secretly affected by it. Hurrah! This is the last day, but it is enough. John is to stay in town over night, and wont be out until this evening. Jennie wanted to sleep with me--the sly thing! but I told her I should undoubtedly rest better for a night all alone. That was clever, for really I wasnt alone a bit! As soon as it was moonlight and that poor thing began to crawl and shake the pattern, I got up and ran to help her. I pulled and she shook, I shook and she pulled, and before morning we had peeled off yards of that paper. A strip about as high as my head and half around the room. And then when the sun came and that awful pattern began to laugh at me, I declared I would finish it to-day! We go away to-morrow, and they are moving all my furniture down again to leave things as they were before. Jennie looked at the wall in amazement, but I told her merrily that I did it out of pure spite at the vicious thing. She laughed and said she wouldnt mind doing it herself, but I must not get tired. How she betrayed herself that time! But I am here, and no person touches this paper but me--not ALIVE! She tried to get me out of the room--it was too patent! But I said it was so quiet and empty and clean now that I believed I would lie down again and sleep all I could; and not to wake me even for dinner--I would call when I woke. So now she is gone, and the servants are gone, and the things are gone, and there is nothing left but that great bedstead nailed down, with the canvas mattress we found on it. We shall sleep downstairs to-night, and take the boat home to-morrow. I quite enjoy the room, now it is bare again. How those children did tear about here! This bedstead is fairly gnawed! But I must get to work. I have locked the door and thrown the key down into the front path. I dont want to go out, and I dont want to have anybody come in, till John comes. I want to astonish him. Ive got a rope up here that even Jennie did not find. If that woman does get out, and tries to get away, I can tie her! But I forgot I could not reach far without anything to stand on! This bed will NOT move! I tried to lift and push it until I was lame, and then I got so angry I bit off a little piece at one corner--but it hurt my teeth. Then I peeled off all the paper I could reach standing on the floor. It sticks horribly and the pattern just enjoys it! All those strangled heads and bulbous eyes and waddling fungus growths just shriek with derision! I am getting angry enough to do something desperate. To jump out of the window would be admirable exercise, but the bars are too strong even to try. Besides I wouldnt do it. Of course not. I know well enough that a step like that is improper and might be misconstrued. I dont like to LOOK out of the windows even--there are so many of those creeping women, and they creep so fast. I wonder if they all come out of that wall-paper as I did? But I am securely fastened now by my well-hidden rope--you dont get ME out in the road there! I suppose I shall have to get back behind the pattern when it comes night, and that is hard! It is so pleasant to be out in this great room and creep around as I please! I dont want to go outside. I wont, even if Jennie asks me to. For outside you have to creep on the ground, and everything is green instead of yellow. But here I can creep smoothly on the floor, and my shoulder just fits in that long smooch around the wall, so I cannot lose my way. Why theres John at the door! It is no use, young man, you cant open it! How he does call and pound! Now hes crying for an axe. It would be a shame to break down that beautiful door! John dear! said I in the gentlest voice, the key is down by the front steps, under a plantain leaf! That silenced him for a few moments. Then he said--very quietly indeed, Open the door, my darling! I cant, said I. The key is down by the front door under a plantain leaf! And then I said it again, several times, very gently and slowly, and said it so often that he had to go and see, and he got it of course, and came in. He stopped short by the door. What is the matter? he cried. For Gods sake, what are you doing! I kept on creeping just the same, but I looked at him over my shoulder. Ive got out at last, said I, in spite of you and Jane. And Ive pulled off most of the paper, so you cant put me back! Now why should that man have fainted? But he did, and right across my path by the wall, so that I had to creep over him every time! Find more works of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Charlotte Perkins GilmanCharlotte Perkins Gilman QuotesSome Poems of Charlotte Perkins GilmanHerlandWomen and EconomicsFor Birth ControlWe As Women Find womens history biographies, by name: A  |  B  |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P/Q  |  R  |  S  |  T  |  U/V  |  W  |  X/Y/Z

Thursday, May 14, 2020

College and Tuition Is it worth It - 1153 Words

Its sad the amount of students not going to collage based on tuition in the United States. Anymore, 47% of junior high and high school student’s parents feel they cant afford college for their kids anymore with the cost of tuition and it still increasing. I feel college tuition is way too high in the United States for most families in todays economy. Over half of the students going into college show some concern with how to pay for college. The amount of college graduate debt is rapidly increasing. Also, the little amount of jobs available because of the high unemployment rate, are having a harder time paying off debt. Even though the students can get loans and financial aid. Although some claim that higher education is still worth it,†¦show more content†¦These numbers hit some schools extremely hard. According to Timothy Hulsey in his published article on cost of education nown: State contributions to the 2009-10 operating budget declined by $189 million at UCLA, $ 109 million at University of Florida, $99 million at University of Washington, and $63 million at Louisiana State University (LSU), according to a Nov.1, 2009, New York Times article by Paul Fain. The percentage decline was equally significant, ranging from 33 percent at UCLA to 27 percent at LSU. So therefore, states need to make up the money in a way so tuition of college keeps increasing for the states. Grants are even becoming harder for students to receive making going to and paying off college harder and harder. Also high unemployment rates contribute as well. In December of 2009, the nations unemployment rate was around ten percent. Now in 2013, the rate has decreased which is good its now around 7%.But the problem is people ages 20-24 is over 14% unemployed. These numbers are still high. This shows for students finding jobs and having jobs is really hard. And because of this, students are found competing against their peers for the jobs on and around compass. Without jobs, paying off the debt and college takes longer and longer. As of 2010 90% of college seniors were talking about moving back home after they were finished with college. This means thatShow MoreRelatedCollege Tuition : Is No Worth Paying For College?2017 Words   |  9 PagesCollege Tuition Intuition Nobody enjoys paying for college. No one thinks about college and gets excited about all the money they might spend, but now people are actually thinking of ways to fix that. Currently colleges are very expensive, especially private colleges. However, with the current presidential election going on, the possibility of free public college is being brought up. This concept would be greatly beneficial to today’s youth and help them graduate college debt free. Each year, collegeRead MoreWith Tuition Costs at an all Time High, Is College Really Worth It?872 Words   |  4 Pagesinfancy, parents are always encouraging their children to go to college and become a professional. But in this new age economic crisis, is college really worth it? Tuition costs are rising to a criminally high price have everyone arguing. Is college really a good investment? Well in a very short way, Yes it is. An investment that makes you 500,000 to a million dollar lifetime payout is uncomparable. In the end, today an average college graduate will make far more over the course of his or her lifeRead MoreIs College Still A Good Investment?958 Words   |  4 PagesIn Does College Still Pay, Lisa Barrow explores that even though the college tuition costs are increasing rapidly, is college still a good investment. Barrow states that college still worth wild and there is no evidence of a downward trend to students attending college due to increasing college tuition. Barrow also claims that by getting a bachelor s degree today, a college student can expect to regain all of their investments they have put towards their education within 10 years after graduationRead MoreThe Importance Of College Education1138 Words   |  5 PagesCollege Education 1. INTRODUCTION My issue is the debate if college education is worth it. Many people think going to college is the ideal thing to do but there is also people who think college is not worth all the time and money. In 2016, the employment rate was highest for young adults with a bachelor’s degree or higher, 88 %. College prepares young adults for the real world and everything they need to know. Typically, college graduates have higher employment rates and have a better chanceRead MorePersuasive Essay1334 Words   |  6 PagesFatemah Karim Ms. Meyer AP English 11 February 22, 2013 Is it really worth going to college, owing hundreds of dollars in order to get a degree in a profession to become successful and experienced in the real world? Today, as tuition costs increase students are questioning whether college is fit for them or not. For one, college can be really expensive, for example at the University of Minnesota for an undergraduate during the academic year of 2011-2012, the cost for one credit was $448.08 and $5Read MoreCollege And An Arts Degree1456 Words   |  6 Pagesearning a college degree, there are students who look to pursue their passions. Many instances people view college as a gateway into the middle class if they aren’t of the wealthy already. So they venture out to study as an engineer, doctor, lawyer, or ect, in hopes of making over $100,000 or as close to this as possible. However when arts students take on college the expectation to get paid high wages like that is unlikely. Bring up the question is college and an arts degree rea lly worth it? The worthRead MoreCollege Education Essay1364 Words   |  6 PagesIs College Still Worth it ? Since their childrens infancy parents have always encouraged their children to go to college and become a professional. But in this new age economic crisis, is college really worth it? Tuition costs are rising to a criminally high price has everyone arguing. Is college really a good investment? Well in a very short way, yes it is. An investment that makes you 500,000 to a million dollar lifetime payout is uncomparable. In the end, today an average college graduate willRead MoreU.s. Economy s Impact On The Economy955 Words   |  4 PagesOne argument that disagrees with the increase being an issue, States that the economy could benefit from the tuition increase being put back into it. With this extra money the economy could start to recover from the recession that designated start was December 2007 (R.F., 2015). While recovery is very important for America, how can tuition increase help to rebuild a country that needs less people in debt and more productive citizens producing rather than increasing debt due to rising cost? How muchRead MoreIs College Worth The Time And Money? Essay1308 Words   |  6 PagesWilliamson CR 11 3 Dec. 2016 Is College Worth the Time and Money? Colleges are everywhere—they are advertised middle and high schools, television ads show people satisfied with their college experiences, and parents ask their children what school they want to go to. In today’s society, college is expected for many, a necessity for others. People are told the only way to further a country is to educate. With tuition being a part of college, many question if college is worth all the money when there areRead MoreThe Cost Of College Tuition1541 Words   |  7 PagesThe cost of college tuition is increasing exponentially ever year. Students have to pay for a number of things besides the tuition for inference books, dorms, fees, tutor, etc on top of their everyday living expenses. At this rate college tuition will be far beyond the reach for the average person. The inflation raises numerous of questions. If the recession is not getting better why do schools continue to increase tuition? What can be done so that the college tuition wonâ₠¬â„¢t be so far out of reach

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Psychology Has Remained A Progressive Science Due To The

Psychology has remained a progressive science due to the many contributions of influential leaders. In this paper I will mention three historical figures who I believe were important in the development of the field of psychology in the past and till this day. Paul Ekman is an American psychologist who became a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. He was born in 1934, Washington D.C., he graduated with a Ph. D in clinical psychology from the Adelphi University. Following his work in clinical psychology, he became a consultant in the Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute. Ekman is known as the â€Å"human lie detector† due to his expertise in the physiology of emotion, his ability to detect deception and his†¦show more content†¦His findings helped psychologist gain knowledge in how facial expressions play an important part in human interactions. His work helps doctors identify when patients are being deceitful and prevent them from harming themselves in the future. Today, Ekman continues to be an influential leader in the field of psychology. He has developed training programs to help people decipher people’s emotions, help people enhance their relationships with others and help people develop a sense of empathy for others. In addition to his work Ekman is an active consultant on emotional expression to judges, lawyers, government agencies such as the FBI and CIA. Emil Kraepelin was a German physiatrist who became the founder of modern scientific psychiatry, and Psychopharmacology. He was born in 1856, Neusreletiz in Northern Germany, he graduated and received his M.D. from the University of Wurzburg. Emil began his work in the field of psychopharmacology at Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory at Leipzig University. Later, Kraepelin became the head of a clinic at the University of Dorpat where he began to study the clinical history of his patients with mental illnesses. It was then that he became interested in studying how the course of illnesses and the patterns of symptoms can help identify psychiatric disorders. Kraepelin began to view mental illness evident on individuals in a â€Å"clinical† view rather than through theShow MoreRelatedThe Internet Is Not The Best Place For A Woman Essay1310 Words   |  6 Pagespopular resources a feminist can find. The constantly growing website has a wealth of fresh columns, contributors, and spin off sites. Whether you happen to be a student or a veteran of the cause, has something that everybody can learn from. 2. FEMINIST.ORG Not to be confused with number 1, is the home website for the Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF). The FMF was founded in 1987. Since then, it has become a leading organization dedicated to women s equality, reproductiveRead MoreThe And Tenets Of Life Course Criminology1587 Words   |  7 PagesPaper Proposal The societal problem of delinquency is a seemingly unsolvable issue that has persisted since the Industrial Revolution (Bell, 2015). As a result of this perceived surplus of young people who commit antisocial behaviour, academics have attempted to not only solve delinquency, but identify the factors that contribute to it. The life-course perspective was adopted as one way to understand and explain this complex issue. Life-course criminology (often referred to as DLC) emerged from thisRead MoreGender Roles And Women s Careers1532 Words   |  7 Pagesfinancial areas, with some variation in different regions of the world. Nonetheless, women hold only a small percentage of board seats and other influential positions in these areas worldwide. It is also known that presently, women see themselves as progressive and career-oriented. Yet in the treatment rooms of the mental health professionals they share experiences that evidence a great deal of discomfort in achieving successful careers free of self- stigma and guilt. One perspective in the understandingRead MoreComapring Gardners Model to the Theory of John Dewey2342 Words   |  10 PagesPhilosophers are part of history, caught in its movement; creators perhaps in some measure of its future, but also assuredly creatures of its past.-John Dewey American philosopher, social commentator, idealist, educator, and democratic theorist, John Dewey has had a profound impact on Americas educational system. Proponent of change and advocate of hands-on learning and interactive classrooms, Dewey accomplished a great deal in his long life, (interestingly enough, he is the only major philosopher to liveRead MoreHerbert Spencer Essay13142 Words   |  53 PagesHerbert Spencer (1820-1903) was an English philosopher, scientist, engineer, and political economist. In his day his works were important in popularizing the concept of evolution and played an important part in the development of economics, political science, biology, and philosophy. Herbert Spencer was born in Derby on April 27, 1820. His childhood, described in An Autobiography (1904), reflected the attitudes of a family which was known on both sides to include religious nonconformists, social criticsRead MoreMental Health Care For Low Income Americans2031 Words   |  9 PagesHealth Care for Low-Income Americans Through environmental and technological innovations, health care in the industrialized world has been transformed over the past two centuries. This transformation also applies to mental health care. With the discovery and acceptance of psychology as a legitimate health science in the past one and a half centuries, mental health has been gradually integrated into the broad health care schema as primary and preventative medicine. However, even with this gradualRead More The Impact and History of Learning Disorders on Children Essay5477 Words   |  22 Pagesnear resolution—all children were now able to attend school and schools existed for all children to attend. And yet, what did it mean that, despite the increased access to and importance of primary education, some children were still failing? And how has our understanding of the reasons for failure changed since we first began to be concerned by it? The changing perceptions of attention-deficit disorder in particular offer a tantalizing window into modern debates over learning disabilities and academicRead MoreFeatures of Charismatic Leadership: Mahathir Mohamad2384 Words   |  10 Pagesused to work under Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad in 1974 with the Ministry of Education for seven years. When the news of the arrest was announced to the public by the media regarding the arrest of his former Political Secretary, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad remained calmed although questions and suspicions arose over the constitution on which the administration had used to govern the country, especially since there were still traces of communists movement left in Malaysia then. As a result, for the first timeRead MoreIntroduction to Public Administration2908 Words   |  12 PagesPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MEANING ,NATURE AND SCOPE Introduction Public Administration is a newly emerged discipline compare to other Social Science’s discipline. Public Administration has gained immense importance since the emergence of Administrative state. In Ancient Greek, Roman and Indian political system gave more importance to the concept of Administration. Kautilys’s â€Å"Arthasathra† contributed large scale in the administrative system; it deals every aspect of the state and its relation to subjectsRead MoreConcept Analysis: Compassion Fatigue Essay2583 Words   |  11 Pagesthe concepts of empathy, compassion, nurturing, and caring. In the last two decades, a global nursing shortage has developed, leading to a phenomenon in nursing never seen before; the delivery of nursing care without nurturing. Increased workloads, higher patient acuity, deficient resources, and inadequate support systems, have all contributed to the decreased job satisfaction that has left nurses unable to display the compassion that was once a unique quality of nurses (Hooper, Craig, Janvrin, Wetsel

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Migration Laws for Immigration and Border -

Question: Discuss about theMigration Laws for Immigration and Border Protection. Answer: The case was related to an appeal against the decision of the administrative appeals Tribunal with respect to taking into account appropriate consideration for deciding a visa application. In this case the delegate of minister of immigration and border protection refuse to issue the applicant a student subclass 572 visa. An appeal was made by the appellant stating that there was an error made by the Tribunal in relation to exercising its powers of reviewing and primary decision provided by the delegate of the Minister by not paying attention to the matter which had to be mandatorily considered by them. According to Section 499 of the migration Act 1958 it was the duty of the Tribunal to pay attention in relation to specific matters which included the circumstances of the applicant along with immigration history and other matters which are relevant. As a Tribunal ignored overlooked search specific matter the Tribunal is deemed not to pay attention to them. There was a certificate provided by a health practitioner in Australia that the applicant is suffering from depression. The reason for the alteration in the educational course was provided by the applicant were written statement. There was a failure on the part of the Tribunal to exercise the powers provided to it in relation to the review of the primary decision given by the delegate of minister as it failed to conduct a review of such decision or giving such decision in an unreasonable manner. It was provided by the Tribunal that it is not satisfied in relation to the evidence provided before it that the applicant has genuine interest towards achieving a successful educational outcome from the time he arrived in Australia. It was also provided by the Tribunal that it considered the medical condition of the applicant that he was suffering from depression. It was further stated by the Tribunal that the medical report from India are provided through and assessment conducted by an Indian medical practitioner over telephone conversation. Therefore Limited weightage is given to the. The report from the Australian medical practitioner only stated symptoms of depression and no further medical reports had been provided by the practitioner. Even when the student was enrolled into higher studies there was no attempt made by him towards any class or subject in level of study[1]. The court in this case provided that jurisdictional error is committed by Administrative Tribunal in circumstances where it is not able to take into consideration those matters which it is bound to consider. The court found that the combination of the direction number 53 along with section 499 of the migration act signifies that the Tribunal must give regard to such consideration which have been set out in the directions[2]. The weightage in relation to one or more factors is up on the Tribunal to decide and may vary in different cases. An argument was provided by the applicant that misapprehension of the evidence was done by the Tribunal in relation to the depression of the applicant with respect to the reason of the force change and thus accounted to a jurisdictional error by not considering relevant matters. Reference was made to the findings of the Tribunal by the applicant which talked about considerable gas in the studies and enrolment of applicant which stated that the Tribuna l did not take into account the fact that the depression suffered by the applicant was the cause of such gaps[3]. Argument was made by the applicant that it should be inferred that this diagnosis was overlooked by the Tribunal. Therefore the Great Depression of the applicant was not accepted by the Tribunal with respect to the reason of the length of time he has stayed in Australia without attaining educational achievements which created significant gap with respect to his studies[4]. It was provided by the court that the consideration of the tribunal had been limited in relation to the course change by the applicant by stating that it was not content is believing that the new course opted by the applicant had any relation to the previously conducted education of the applicant. This is not the issue which is required by be given regards to by the tribunal as per direction 53. The direction further allows changes in relation to reasonable changes in career which was not considered or mentioned by the tribunal. The consideration of the material and claims as provided by the applicant by the tribunal were not particular which depicted a failure to consider the materials. Thus a jurisdictional error was committed by the tribunal[5]. The relevant matter in relation to the diagnosis of depression was also ignored by the tribunal and as these were important matter and were dealt with unreasonably the tribunals was deemed to make a jurisdictional error by the court[6]. Bibliography Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 [1] Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 at [8] [2] Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 at [9] [3] Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 at [10] [4] Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 at [12] [5] Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 at [14] [6] Singh v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 67 at [15]

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Macbeth Essays (333 words) - Characters In Macbeth, Macbeth

Macbeth Macbeth If it hadnt been for the three witches, Macbeth would never have killed Duncan nor Banquo. Macbeth, also would not have been killed my Macduff. The three witches are the reason that everything happened the way the they did. In the beginning of the play, the three witches prophecized that Macbeth would become Thane of Cawdor adn the King of Scotland. In the near future Macbeth became the Thane of Cawdor because of his valiant efforts in the war. Macbeth started to think about the witches proheciesand started to become a little ambitious. With the constant nagging and mockery of Lady Macbeth, Macbeth decides to go through with the murder of Duncan. Thus, another one of the witches prophecies was fulfilled. The witches also prophecized that Banquos sons will be kings. In the worry of Banquo finding out about the murder of Duncan and the thought of Banquos son, Fleance, Macbeth hires a few asassins to murder Banquo and his son. Later,three ghosts appear in front of Macbeth. First, an armored head appears and warns Macbeth to beware of Macduff. Second, a bloody child appears telling Macbeth that no man born a woman should harm him. Third, a child holding a tree, tells Macbeth that he is safe until Birnham Woods comes to Dunsinane. After the three ghosts visit Macbeth, the apparition of Banquo appears. Following Banquo is seven of his descendants, all of which were deceased kings. The first of the three warinings from the ghosts comes true when macduff allies with Malcolm, one of Duncans sons. Together they plan to retake the throne of Scotland. Macduff and Malcolm plan to use the leaves and branches of Birnham Woods as camouflage. Before Macbeth is killed, he remembers the third ghost that stated that no man born a woman should harm him. Macduff then explains that he he was razed out of his mothers stomach, which means that he was not born a woman. All three of the warnings from the ghosts came true. This is why I believe that if Macbeth had never spoken to the three witches, none of this would have happened.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The Bastille, and its Role in the French Revolution

The Bastille, and its Role in the French Revolution The Bastille is one of the most famous fortifications in European history, almost entirely because of the central role it plays in the mythology of the French Revolution. Form and Prison A stone fortress based around eight circular towers with five foot thick walls, the Bastille was smaller than later paintings have made it look, but it was still a monolithic and imposing structure that reached to seventy-three feet in height. It was built in the fourteenth century to defend Paris against the English and started to be used as a prison in the reign of Charles VI. This was still its most (in)famous function by the era of Louis XVI, and the Bastille had seen a lot of prisoners across the years. Most people had been imprisoned on the orders of the king with any trial or defense and were either nobles who had acted against the interests of the court, Catholic dissidents, or writers who were deemed seditious and corrupting. There was also a notable number of people whose families had deemed them stray and appealed to the king to have locked up for their (family’s) sake. By the time of Louis XVI conditions in the Bastille were better than popularly portrayed. The dungeon cells, whose damp hastened illness, were no longer in use, and most prisoners were housed in the middle layers of the building, in cells sixteen feet across with rudimentary furniture, often with a window. Most prisoners were allowed to bring their own possessions, with the most famous example being the Marquis de Sade who bought a vast quantity of fixtures and fittings, as well as an entire library. Dogs and cats were also permitted, to eat any rats. The governor of the Bastille was given a fixed amount for each rank of prisoner each day, with the lowest being three livres a day for the poor (a figure still better than some Frenchmen lived on), and over five times that for high ranking prisoners. Drinking and smoking were also allowed, as were cards if you shared a cell. A Symbol of Despotism Given that people could end up in the Bastille without any trial, it’s easy to see how the fortress developed its reputation: a symbol of despotism, of the oppression of liberty, of censorship, or royal tyranny and torture. This was certainly the tone taken by writers before and during the revolution, who used the very certain presence of the Bastille as a physical embodiment of what they believed was wrong with the government. Writers, many of whom had been released from the Bastille, described it as a place of torture, of living burial, of body draining, mind-sapping hell. The Reality of Louis XVI’s Bastille This image of the Bastille during the reign of Louis XVI is now largely believed to have been an exaggeration, with a smaller number of prisoners treated better than the general public had been led to expect. While there was undoubtedly a major psychological impact to being kept in cells so thick you couldn’t hear other prisoners – best expressed in Linguet’s Memoirs of the Bastille – things had improved considerably, and some writers were able to view their imprisonment as career building rather than life ending. The Bastille had become a relic of a previous age; indeed, documents from the royal court shortly before the revolution reveal plans had already been developed to knock the Bastille down and replace it with public works, including a monument to Louis XVI and freedom. The Fall of the Bastille On July 14th, 1789, days into the French Revolution, a massive crowd of Parisians had just received arms and cannon from the Invalides. This uprising believed forces loyal to the crown would soon attack to try and coerce both Paris and the revolutionary National Assembly, and were seeking weapons to defend themselves. However, arms needed gunpowder, and much of that had been moved to the Bastille by the crown for safety. A crowd thus gathered around the fortress, fortified by both the urgent need for powder, but by hatred for almost everything they believed was wrong in France. The Bastille was unable to mount a long-term defense as, while it had a forbidding number of guns, it had few troops and only two days worth of supplies. The crowd sent representatives into the Bastille to order the guns and powder be handed over, and while the governor – de Launay – declined, he did remove the weapons from the ramparts. But when the representatives left, a surge from the crowd, an accident involving the drawbridge, and the panicked actions of the crowd and soldiers led to a skirmish. When several rebel soldiers arrived with cannon, de Launay decided it was best to seek some sort of compromise for his men and their honor, although he did consider detonating the powder and most of the surrounding area with it. The defenses were lowered and the crowd rushed in. Inside the crowd found just seven prisoners, including four forgers, two insane, and one stray aristocrat. This fact was not allowed to ruin the symbolic act of seizing such a major symbol of once all-powerful monarchy. However, as a number of the crowd had been killed in the fighting – later identified as eighty-three instantly, and fifteen later on from injuries – compared to just one of the garrison, the crowd’s anger demanded a sacrifice, and de Launay was picked. He was marched through Paris and then murdered, his head being displayed on a pike. Violence had bought the second major success of the revolution; this apparent justification would bring many more changes over the next few years. Aftermath The fall of the Bastille left the population of Paris with the gunpowder for their recently seized weapons, giving the revolutionary city the means to defend itself. Just as the Bastille had been a symbol of royal tyranny before it fell, so after it was swiftly transformed by publicity and opportunism into a symbol of freedom. Indeed the Bastille â€Å"was much more important in its â€Å"afterlife† than it ever had been as a working institution of the state. It gave shape and an image to all the vices against which the Revolution defined itself.† (Schama, Citizens, p. 408) The two insane prisoners were soon sent to an asylum, and by November a fevered effort had demolished most of the Bastille’s structure. The King, although encouraged by his confidants to leave for a border area and hopefully more loyal troops, conceded and pulled his forces away from Paris and began to accept the revolution. Bastille Day is still celebrated in France each year.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Bariatric Surgery Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Bariatric Surgery - Research Paper Example Firstly, according to Padwal et al., bariatric surgery is the solution to the treatment of type 2 diabetes that occurs in conjunction with obesity when all other methods have failed to produce positive results. It has been evidenced that some individuals that undergo the procedure with high blood sugar levels recover within days to weeks after the surgery. Buchwald et al. demonstrated the applicability of bariatric surgery in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes in a case whereby all other medication approaches had failed to produce results. Secondly, the area of study chosen for this study is in Australia whereby the members of the public have raised a lot of concern about the reasons as to why patients with obesity and diabetes type 2 have to spend the rest of their lives in healthcare centres in addition to facing unstoppable deaths either from the two conditions or from other conditions associated with obesity. This particular study will, therefore, bring into practice a therapeutic procedure known as bariatric surgery into practice, whose outcomes are desirable with reduced times of stay in the hospital and also associated with little chances of hospital re-admission. Pharmacotherapy is also advisable, but it has its own risks of adverse effects hence should only be administered if the benefit is worth the risk. Obesity is as serious as any other chronic disease hence partnership between the patient with the high motivation of recovering and committed health practitioners is essential.